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Productos con soya incrementarían riesgo de cáncer

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La soya generalmente se promociona como una alternativa saludable a las proteínas para aquellas personas que prefieren no comer carne. No obstante, los resultados de las investigaciones sobre los efectos de la soya en la reducción del riesgo de tener cáncer son diversos, especialmente en los casos de cáncer de mama.

Según explican desde la ONG norteamericana contra el cáncer de mama Breastcancer, los productos de soya tienen propiedades similares a los estrógenos y por ello han aumentado las preocupaciones de un potencial incremento del riesgo de cáncer de mama por el consumo de estos. Así, hay cierta preocupación con que los altos niveles de estrógeno ayuden a las células cancerosas a crecer y propagarse, aunque esto sigue siendo controvertido.

En concreto, son las isoflavonas el componente de la soya que tiene propiedades similares a los estrógenos. Según Breastcancer, no está claro si las isoflavonas de la soya afectan al cáncer de mama, especialmente al cáncer de mama de receptores de hormonas positivos.

Las isoflavonas pueden afectar a la capacidad de la terapia hormonal de hacer su trabajo si ambas moléculas compiten para ingresar en los mismos receptores de estrógeno. Si las isoflavonas envían una señal estrogénica más débil al receptor en comparación con el tamoxifeno (y con el estrógeno del cuerpo), las isoflavonas podrían ser capaces de reducir el crecimiento de las células de la mama que depende del estrógeno. Sin embargo, si las isoflavonas envían a las células de la mama una señal estrogénica más fuerte que el tamoxifeno, se origina un problema”, añade.

Hasta que se aclare el panorama, muchos médicos recomiendan que las mujeres que reciben terapia hormonal o que están diagnosticadas con cáncer de mama de receptores de estrógeno positivos eviten los suplementos de soya, debido a que contienen concentraciones elevadas de isoflavonas. Sin embargo, considera que se pueden comer cantidades moderadas de alimentos de soya como parte de una dieta balanceada.

En una entrevista con Infosalus, la nutricionista especializada en Oncología del IOB Institute of Oncology, Jordina Casademunt, señala que una de las dudas más frecuentes en el cáncer de mama sensible a hormonas es si se puede consumir soya, ya que esta legumbre es rica en isoflavonas, fitoestrógenos que tienen una estructura similar a los estrógenos endógenos pero una actividad más débil que los estrógenos producidos por el cuerpo.

En algunos estudios en animales se ha visto que los componentes de la soya (genisteína, un tipo de isoflavona) pueden incrementar el receptor positivo de estrogenos (ER+) y promover el crecimiento del tumor. Pero por otro lado se ha visto que los ratones metabolizan los fitoestrógenos como la genistéina de forma distinta a nosotros. Se ha visto que la gesnisteína se une más fácilmente a un tipo de receptor estrogénico que inhibe el crecimiento tumoral (ER-beta)”, explica la especialistas en nutrición para pacientes oncológicos.

También se ha visto que depende de nuestra salud intestinal (de si tenemos la bacterias que producen equol) podemos fermentar los compuestos de la soya en formas biológicamente activas beneficiosas para la salud. “Los últimos estudios demuestran que dependiendo de tu microbiota intestinal se puede metabolizar bien esta soya y que ésta sea saludable para ti, protectora del cáncer de mama, o bien no se tiene esa capacidad de fabricar esos metabolitos saludables y entonces no sería recomendable su consumo”, añade.

Las recomendaciones americanas de consumo de soya en cáncer de mama apuntan a dosis pequeñas pero diarias. “No es un alimento problemático de por sí, ni tampoco es un alimento de nuestra zona, con lo que el consumo si es una vez o dos a la semana afecta poco y no tiene ninguna incidencia.

En concreto, cita al Cancer Research británico y a la American Cancer Society, que indican que las investigaciones han demostrado que el consumo moderado de alimentos con soya parece ser seguro. En cambio, se recomienda evitar los productos concentrados de soya como suplementos, alimentos elaborados con aislado de proteína de soja.

Las recomendaciones que se ha visto son seguras para la salud son: 1-2 raciones al día de productos de soya como tofu, edamame, tempeh. Aunque las mejores formas (o las que yo recomendaría son las formas fermentadas: miso, tempeh, tamari)”, subraya.

MÁS ALLÁ DE LA SOYA

Para una enferma o a la hora de prevenir el cáncer de mama hormonodependiente destaca también que es el ejercicio físico el que tiene un impacto más positivo porque es en el tejido graso donde se acumulan los estrógenos. “El hecho de hacer ejercicio físico y favorecer un peso saludable es más interesante que saber si se come soya o no. El impacto que tiene el peso en la prevención del cáncer de mama es mayor”, insiste.

A su juicio, lo realmente importante a la hora de tener en cuenta en un cáncer de mama es la dieta global y el peso. “Tener un peso adecuado (evitar el sobrepeso), realizar ejercicio físico, el consumo de vegetales y de frutas a diario, y la reducción en el consumo de carne roja puede reducir el riesgo de cáncer de mama en un 22%.También se ha visto que el síndrome metabólico se asocia con un mayor riesgo de cáncer de mama y otros tipos de cáncer”, apunta la especialista del IOB Institute of Oncology.

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