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Una “materia oscura microbiana” nunca antes descrita domina todos los hábitats de la Tierra

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La “materia oscura microbiana”, es decir, los microbios desconocidos por no haber sido nunca antes descritos ni cultivados en laboratorio, dominarían numéricamente en todos los principales hábitats de la Tierra, con la única excepción del cuerpo humano.

Esta es la conclusión de un estudio liderado por Karen Lloyd, profesora asociada de la Universidad de Tennessee y publicado recientemente por la revista de la Sociedad Americana de Microbiología MSystems.

Estos organismos nunca antes estudiados pueden resultar importantes para el funcionamiento del ecosistema. De hecho, se cree que podrían tener comportamientos inusuales, “como sobrevivir con muy poca energía o crecer extraordinariamente despacio”, según palabras de Lloyd recogidas por Europa Press, quien también afirma que “es posible que no puedan crecer por sí mismos en cultivo”.

Este enorme trabajo estimativo contó con la colaboración del Instituto Conjunto de Ciencias Computacionales en el Laboratorio Nacional Oak Ridge, para poder analizar 1,5 millones de secuencias de ADN recogidas en bases de datos públicas y compararlas con las 26.000 secuencias de ADN de microbios que ya se han cultivado, como describen los responsables del estudio en un video difundido por la revista científica.

Estos ingentes cálculos han hecho que los científicos lleguen a la conclusión de que hay aproximadamente unas 30 taxas entre reinos y clases de microbios que nunca se han cultivado y que representarían la cuarta parte de los microbios de nuestro planeta.

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