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Se triplica la pérdida de hielo en la Antártida

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El calentamiento global dejó de ser un problema con consecuencias a futuro para convertirse en un conflicto de la actualidad: debido a la pérdida de hielo en la Antártida, el ritmo de aumento del nivel del mar se triplicó desde 2012 hasta alcanzar 0,6 milímetros por año, publica New Scientist.

La preocupación de los expertos crece a medida que sube el agua en el planeta. Al respecto, el medio ya citado señala que en 2007 se creía que no habría una pérdida de hielo en la Antártida en el transcurso del siglo. Sin embargo, ya en el 2012 se comprobó, gracias a un estudio de la Universidad de California, que esa masa gélida se estaba reduciendo.

Bloques de hielo en el territorio argentino ubicado en la Antártida. Nicolas Misculin / Reuters

Uno de sus realizadores, el director del Centro para la Observación y el Modelado Polar (CPOM, por sus sigla en inglés), Andrew Shepherd, comentó: “Ha habido un fuerte aumento, con casi la mitad de la pérdida en los últimos cinco años”, cita el medio mencionado. Si se analiza desde una perspectiva más amplia, entre 1992 y 2017 el nivel del mar creció 7,6 milimétros. A pesar de que la cifra parezca pequeña, está subiendo cada vez más.

¿Tres metros más?

Un informe del 2017, en el que participó la Universidad de Southampton, de Inglaterra, destaca que en el 2100 el agua de todos los mares podría aumentar su altitud entre 2,5 y 3 metros. Otra investigación publicada en IOP Science respalda esta misma teoría. Desde la institución académica van más allá en las alarmas: “El calentamiento global no controlado llevará a un aumento del nivel del mar de muchos metros, posiblemente más de 10, dentro de unos pocos siglos”, considera Sybren Drijfhout, profesor de Oceanografía Física y Física del Clima.

No obstante, existe cierto escepticismo sobre la confiabilidad de estos informes. Así, se señala que los estudios mencionados previamente se realizan con satélites que miden los cambios en la altura de las capas de hielo. Sin embargo, hay datos que son difíciles de interpretar, como cuando cae nieve encima de la masa analizada.

Aun así, un equipo de investigadores de la Universidad de Utrecht, en los Países Bajos, sostiene que los resultados son “testeados” y concluyó que la Antártida perdió tres billones de toneladas de hielo entre 1992 y 2017. Regresando al siglo pasado, tan solo en ese período el nivel del mar subió 0,2 metros, principalmente por la pérdida de hielos en montañas y particularmente en Groenlandia, sumado a la expansión de los océanos como resultado del calentamiento.

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