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Mexicanos desarrollan programa que interpreta ladridos de perros

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Muchas veces he sentido que Juno, mi perra, me ladra algo importante pero el mensaje se pierde en el abismo. Como aquella vez que conoció a una chica con la que salí y no dejó de gruñirle y todo el tiempo que estuvo en mi casa. Sobra decir que tiempo después esa mujer me rompió el corazón y mi preciosa amiga canina intentaba decirme que sólo iba a perder mi tiempo en esa relación. Gracias, Juno, realmente lo aprecio.

Mujer demanda a restaurante; una lasaña arruinó su vida

Para mi sorpresa, resulta que un sistema que interpreta ladridos y los convierte en mensajes en español no es algo tan lejano. Platiqué con el Doctor Humberto Pérez-Espinosa, investigador del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT) en Tepic, México, quien encabeza un proyecto transformado en aplicación para tablet o celular, a través del cual será posible descifrar los crípticos mensajes de nuestros adorados caninos.

El proyecto, donde también colaboraron los investigadores José Matín Pérez-Martínez, José Ángel Durán-Reynoso y Verónica Reyes-Meza, de la Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, busca generar nuevos puentes comunicacionales en los que el dueño del perro pueda saber con certeza qué busca y qué emoción está motivando los actos de su perro.

VICE: ¿Cómo nace este proyecto? ¿Cuáles son las ambiciones?
Humberto Pérez-Espinosa: Fue iniciativa de Efecto Mezcalina, una empresa michoacana que se dedica a la publicidad, cuya estrategia es desarrollar productos innovadores que puedan ofrecer a sus clientes y hacer campañas publicitarias.

En este caso va dirigido a empresas que se dedican a las mascotas, en específico a los perros. El proyecto estaba orientado, al principio, a crear un reconocedor de emociones en los perros, es decir, que tuviéramos un sistema que pudiera reconocer varios tipos de estados emocionales en los perros.

Al trabajar con esta visión, comenzamos a recopilar datos y nos dimos cuenta que era un tanto difícil inducir emociones en los perros. Lo que nosotros hacemos se basa en un esquema que se llama Aprendizaje supervisado, en el cual, a partir de muestras de ladridos, generamos modelos que reconozcan diferentes patrones.

Entonces le puedes dar al sistema ejemplos de un perro enojado y otro contento y el algoritmo de aprendizaje trata de encontrar patrones para diferenciar las características acústicas de un ladrido enojado a diferencia de uno alegre.

Cuando nos dimos cuenta que esto era complicado, le dimos un giro al proyecto y lo enfocamos más hacia la detección de posibles niveles de alarma a través de los ladridos. Recolectamos datos de perros en contextos diferentes, por ejemplo, ante la presencia de un extraño o jugando con su dueño para poder contrastar los diferentes ladridos. Hicimos un sistema que detecta cuando un perro está ladrando muy agresivamente.

La idea es que el perro porte un dispositivo en su collar que capte el audio del ambiente todo el tiempo y cuando detecte un ladrido, envíe el audio hacia una plataforma que se encarga de procesarlo y de estimar un nivel de alarma con base en las propiedades acústicas del ladrido y te envíe una alarma hacia tu dispositivo móvil (tablet o teléfono) indicando cuál puede ser el nivel de alarma de sus ladridos. Lo que buscamos es que el usuario, a través de su celular, pueda hacer algo como activar la alarma de su casa o que pueda activar una cámara para ver qué está pasando. Hacia esto va el proyecto.

Los modelos que comento reconocen patrones en el audio de acuerdo a las propiedades acústicas del ladrido. Estos son modelos generados a través de algoritmos de aprendizaje máquina.

Las muestras de audio las clasificamos como agresivas o muy agresivas. Se extraen características acústicas de cada muestra y a partir de eso se identifican automáticamente los ladridos pasivos de los agresivos.

También agregamos otra información, por ejemplo, cuántos ladridos por unidad de tiempo se están encontrando, las pausas que hacen entre ladridos o todas estas cosas que pueden darte un indicio de que tan alarmante puede ser el ladrido del perro.

¿Cómo podría mejorar la relación entre los perros y sus dueños si se dificulta detectar el espectro emocional de los caninos?
Lo que hemos hecho es detectar, tal vez no directamente las emociones, pero sí diferentes formas de ladrar bajo distintos contextos.

Ya se han hecho trabajos de algunos otros investigadores donde se ha trabajado con hasta siete diferentes contextos: hambre, juego, pelea, comida, pelota, cuando una persona extraña se le acerca y caminata. A partir de la identificación de estos diferentes contextos se podría hacer una interpretación de un ladrido.

Una de las ideas que hemos tenido en colaboración con la empresa es hacer un tipo de intérprete de ladridos en el que al reconocer cierto contexto se podría traducir a un mensaje en español. Éste se mandaría igual a una aplicación para que el dueño del perro pudiera verlo, y así mejorar el entendimiento o la relación que el dueño tenga con su perro.

¿Cuáles descubrieron que son los contextos más fáciles de descifrar?
Los más fáciles son cuando el perro muestra agresividad. Cuando el perro está peleando con otro perro, los ladridos son muy distintivos. Además, algo muy importante en esto del aprendizaje máquina son las muestras que tienes de cada tipo de ladrido.

En ciertos contextos los perros tienden a emitir un mayor número de vocalizaciones que en otros. Es clásico que un perro, cuando está alarmado, ladre mucho. Cuando un perro tiene hambre, por ejemplo, no siempre ladra.

De estas clases que tienes menos muestras es más complicado encontrarlas o clasificarlas de manera correcta. Por otro lado, de los contextos donde tienes mayor número de muestras se tiene un mayor éxito a la hora de clasificarlos automáticamente.

Entonces depende en parte del carácter del perro. Si un perro es tranquilo no habrá mucha información para la máquina.
Sí, exactamente. Otra idea que hemos tenido es que esta detección del estado del perro sea multimodal.

Es decir, que no sea sólo a través de los ladridos, sino que hayan otros sensores. Se nos ocurrió poner un acelerómetro en la cola del perro, ya que sabemos que el movimiento de la cola muchas veces expresa algo. Podría ser algo así.

¿Estos experimentos son con todo tipo de perro?

Ahorita estamos empezando con tres razas: french poodle, schnauzer y chihuahua. Esas son las razas de las que pudimos encontrar más perros disponibles para grabarlos y con estos perros construimos nuestra base de datos. Y son los más comunes, entonces es más fácil que una familia tenga uno de esos. Más adelante se irían incorporando un mayor número de razas o llegar al punto que sea independiente de la raza.

¿Qué dificultades, además de rastrear las emociones pasivas, han encontrado al desarrollar este proyecto?
Una parte tiene que ver con el procesamiento de la señal. Tenemos esta variabilidad de ambientes en el que el perro se puede encontrar. Hay perros que están en interiores, donde es más silencioso, y perros que están en patios, donde hay más ruido, entonces el lidiar con todo tipo de contextos sí es un poquito difícil. Es algo en lo que hemos estado trabajando, y sí es algo que ha dificultado el mejorar la precisión de los modelos. El otro problema es tener una buena representación de los tipos de ladridos para poder tener modelos que sean más generalizables.

Humberto espera que la aplicación para uso público esté disponible en tan sólo un año. Solamente queda sentarnos, mover la colita y esperar todo el rango de emociones que podremos comprender gracias a esta investigación y un pequeño dispositivo que podremos poner en el collar de nuestros amigos. Puedes leer la investigación completa, aquí.

 

Información de : Excelsior

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